Hall Genealogy Old Occupation Names
The Flag of St George & England
Updated Mon, 17-Jun-2019
Old Name
New Name or Meaning
Sachrist / Sachristan Person retained in a cathedral to copy out music for the choir, and take care of the books. One who is in charge of a sacristy. A sexton.
Saddle Tree Maker Made the wooden frames around which the saddle was formed with leather
Saddler One who makes, repairs or sells saddles or other furnishings for horses
Safernman Grower of Saffron.
Saggar Maker /
Saggar Maker's Bottom Knocker
Made saggars (fired clay containers used to hold ceramic items in the kiln whilst firing.) The Saggar Maker's Bottom Knocker was the saggar maker's assistant, usually a young boy, who was responsible for knocking clay into a large metal hoop using a huge flat mallet called a mawl, to form the bottom of the saggar. The saggar maker would then remove the hoop, and form the sides of the saggar onto the base - a much more skilled job than bottom-knocking (testing for cracks by knocking). Some saggar-makers also had a frame filler, who did a very similar job to the bottom knocker, but prepared the clay to make the sides of the saggars, rather than the bottom.  More Info.
Saloonist Saloon keeper
Salt Boiler Obtained salt from boiling salt water
Salter / Saucer Made or dealt in salt
Saltpetre Man Collected urine and dung, used in the manufacture of saltpetre. More Info.
Sarcinet Weaver Silk weaver
Sandesman Ambassador or messenger
Sawbones Physician
Sawyer Timber mill/pit worker, sawing timber
Say Weaver Made "say" - used in making table cloths bedding etc.
Scagliola Maker Made imitation marble
Scale Cutter In the Cutlery trade - cut the 'scales' of wood, bone or ivory that were used to make the handles on cutlery ie. there would be 'scales' that were riveted to each side of the metal handle.
Scappler/Scabbler Would rough-shaped stone before final dressing by a stonemason
Scavelman Cleaned and maintained waterways and ditches
Scavenger / Scaleraker 1) Street cleaner 2) Scavenger - also a child employed in a spinning mill to collect loose cotton lying about the floor under machinery
Schrimpschonger Artisan carving bone, ivory, wood etc.
Schumacker Shoemaker. Formula 1 champion driver!!!!  More Info.
Scotch Draper / Scotchman Sold goods door to door on instalment payments
Scribe Clerk - writer
Scriber Marked bales of cotton on the docks with weight prior to being sold by brokers
Scribler A person who tends a wool/cotton-combing machine called a Scribler - the first process in carding the yarn
Scribbler Minor or worthless author
Scrimer Fencing master
Scrivenor/er 1) Professional or public copyist or writer 2) notary public
Scrutineer Election judge
Scutcher/Skutcher Beat flax to extract the linen fibres. Scutching is the process of extracting linen fibres from flax stems, originally done by hand and later by machine. More Info.
Scullery Maid Female servant who was given the menial tasks
Scullerman Sculled a boat, (rather than rowing it) in ports/rivers as a ferry
Scullion Male servant who was given the menial tasks
Sea Fencibles The Sea Fencibles were established by Order in Council in May 1798 to defend the coast from invasion; they comprised "all such of the inhabitants of the towns and villages of Great Britain as shall voluntarily offer themselves for the defence of the coast". They were taught to use musket, pike and cannon. They were to assist in the manning of defensive positions (Martello towers), plus coastal signal stations and eventually given small boats to patrol harbours. They were to be paid one shilling per day served. It was attractive to fishermen and the like as you were given immunity from being pressed into the Navy. They were organised into districts, commanded by Naval Officers. They grew to their maximum strength in 1810, when there were over 23,000 of them and were disbanded at the end of the wars in 1814.
Seal Presser Glassmaking - sealed the bath to prevent air spoiling the glass surface
Searcher Customs man (today called a rummager - self descriptive) who searched for contraband
Secret Springer Watch spring maker
Seedsman Sower or dealer in seeds
Seeker of the Dead During the Plague, old women woere employed to diagnose the Plague from the buboes and count the dead to enable the compilation of Bills of Mortality, for which they were paid from 3 to 4 pence per corpse. Risky job!
Self-acting Minder
Self Actor Minder
Watched and minded the 'Self Acting Mule' -  the name of a multi thread spinning machine. The original Mule was hand operated and was invented by Samuel Crompton of Bolton in 1779. It was made self-acting by Richard Roberts in 1830.   More Info. - also see Throstle Spinner and Spinner
Semi Lorer Made leather thongs
Sempster / Sempstress / Sewster Seamstress
Seneschal Senior steward at the manor
Sewer Hunter Scavenged in the sewers
Sewer Rat Bricklayer who made and repaired sewers and tunnels
Sewing Clerk Oversaw and collected clothing piecework
Sexton Church caretaker - sometimes dug graves or rang the bells
Shagreen Casemaker Worked with shagreen leather
Shallooner See Chaloner
Shampooer Masseur/masseuse in a Turkish baths
Shantyman Woodman, lumberman
Sharecropper Tenant farmer whose pay was a fixed part of the crop
Shearer As today, sheared the fleece from sheep
Shearman / Sherman 1) Skilled worker who sheared the nap from cloth - also Cropper 2) Cutter of metal.
Sheath Maker Made sword and dagger scabbards
Sheepman Shepherd
Shepster 1) Dressmaker 2) Sheep Shearer
Sheriff Representative of Royal office in a Shire.  More Info.
Shingler Worked with an Iron Puddler, manipulating puddled balls of iron on an anvil
Ship's Husband Supplied stores for and maintained ships in dock
Ship Master Ship's Captain - still used today - often also the vessel's owner
Shipwright Builder and repairer of ships
Shoe Finder Sold cobbler's tools
Shoesmith 1) Cobbler 2) Shoed horses
Shoe Wiper Polished shoes - a boot-boy
Shook Maker

Woodworker who specializes in the manufacturing of the thin wooden slats used on wooden shipping containers, especially on boxes used to ship fresh fruit.

Shot Firer Employed blasting in quarries
Shrager Trimmed and pruned trees
Shrieve / Shriever Sheriff
Shuffler Farm yardman
Shunter Moved - shunted - rolling stock around in railway yards to make up, and break down, goods trains
Shuttle Maker Made the wooden shuttles for the looms
Shuttle Tip Maker Made the pointed steel shuttle tips and made in many different designs. A very skilled job as the tips had to withstand being hammered to make the shuttles fly through the yarns from one side of the loom to the other and had to have aerodynamic properties. Forged by hammering red-hot steel
Sick Visitor Employed by Friendly Societies, who paid benefits to sick people, to ensure they were entitled to receive/continue to receive benefits.
Sickleman Reaper
Sidesman Churchwarden's assistant - esp. in church services
Silkman Person engaged in the manufacture and or sale of silk
Silk Drawer Drew silk from silk waste for spinning   More Info.
Silk Dresser Prepared the silk for weaving
Silk Engine Turner Worked on automatic silk weaving looms
Silk Mercer Silk merchant
Silk Piecer Joined the broken threads in the silk spinning mills
Silk Staff Man Probably a worker more on a permanant rather than itinerary position.
Silk Steward Manager of a silk weaving/spinning/winding and cleaning room
Silk Thrower/Throwster Employed in the silk weaving industry, twisting silk into yarn
Silk Twister Silk Spinner (from the raw)
Silk Winder Wound the silk from the silkworm cocoons onto bobbins
Silker Bound the ends of the silk fabric to prevent fraying
Simpler Agriculturalist (herbalist)
Sinker Sunk shafts for mining
Sinker Maker Made lead weights used with hosiery knitting machines, (Nottingham Area)
Sissor / Cissor Tailor
Sizer Applied size to cloth in manufacture
Skepper / Skelper Beehive maker/seller
Skin Dresser "Dressed" - prepared animal skins for the manufacture of clothing or footwear
Skinkster Alehouse tapster
Skinner 1) Dealer in hides 2) Mule driver
Skip Maker Made skips (large baskets), used in mining and quarrying, for transporting product or personnel

Used a knife to cut out the leather shapes which go to form a shoe or boot. More Info

Slapper / Slaper Pottery worker who prepared the clay for the potter
Slasher Applied size (Slasher Sizing) to the warp thread in weaving, to strengthen it and facilitate the weaving process.  More Info.
Slater Roofer
Slate Enameller Painted decorative slate as used in fire surrrounds etc.
Slate River Was employed to cleave blocks of quarried slate in the making of  slates for roofing etc. (River pronounced as in diver)
Slaymaker Made the reeds or slays used in weaving. Slays (wooden pegs) or reeds were used to separate the threads on the loom
Sledman Moved goods by sled
Slinger Person who used slings for loading goods on ships, wagons etc.
Slopseller 1) Slopshop keeper - readymade clothes 2) Basket seller
Slubber Prepared cotton for spinning, removing the "slubs" or imperfections in the yarn.
Slubber Doffer Removed the empty bobbins from the loom spindles
Slubbing Frame Fitter Installed and maintained a Slubbing Frame, used in the preparation of cotton ready for spinning
Smallware Maker Made "smallware" - tapes, braids, ribbons etc.
Smelter 1) Smelt fisherman 2) Smelter in an iron foundry
Smiddy Smith - sometimes still used as a nickname for Smith surname
Smith Metal worker - see also Engine Smith, Blacksmith, Fender Smith
Smith's Striker

A blacksmith who wielded a hammer whilst another blacksmith held the work-piece with tongs in the right position on the anvil

Smoke Doctor Specialist in the construction or repair of chimneys
Smugsmith Smuggler
Snobscat / Snob Shoe repairer
Snow Boy / Snowy Ship's crew whose business it is to keep the white flakes caused by the refrigerator appliances from collecting below
Snuffer Maker Made candle snuffers
Soaper / Soper / Soap Boiler Soap Maker
Sojourn Clothier Travelling clothes salesman
Sortor Tailor
Souter Shoe maker
Sp Dealer Enumerators' abbreviation for a Spirit Dealer
Spallier Tin worker's assistant
Sperviter Sparrow keeper
Spicer Spice dealer / grocer
Spindle & Fly Maker Made the metal Spindles and Fly used in spinning machines
Spinner Spun the yarn to make cloth  More Info.    More Info.  Spinning Mule
Spinster 1) A woman who spins  2) unmarried woman
Splitter Worked a machine splitting stone, timber etc. or did so by hand
Spooner Spoon maker
Spuller Inspected yarn, to see that it is well spun, and fit for the loom
Sprig Maker

A weaver of fine lace sprigs applique. eg 'Honiton' Lace in Devon

Spring Smith Made the springs (usually leaf) used in carriages
Spurrer / Spurrier Made spurs
Squire / Esquire 1) Country landed gentleman 2) Magistrate or justice of the peace 3) Knight's attendant 4) Professional man
Stabler Ostler
Stab-rag Tailor (military slang) mid 19c - also Rag-stabber (slang)
Stallman Market stall holder
Stampman Worked an ore-crushing machine
Stationary Engine Driver Operated steam factory engine, used for all processes, usually linked by a system of shafts, pulleys and belts
Stationary Engineer Maintained the factory steam engine and machinery
Statist Politician
Staymaker 1) Corset maker 2) Made a 'stay' from ash trees, used in bell ringing - See
Steam Hammer Driver Operated a large steam-operated hammer to forge iron and steel. Invented in Manchester in 1837 by George Naismith
Steeplejack Worked on steeples, chimneys, flagpoles etc - still exists
Steersman Ship's helmsman
Stenciller Itinerant tradesmen who travelled around decorating the interior walls of houses with stencils to avoid the prohibitive cost of wallpaper
Stenterer Worked a cloth finishing machine
Step Boy Helped passengers on and off coaches
Stick Maker Made walking sticks
Stick Mounter Decorated walking sticks with silver, gold, bone or ivory mountings
Still Room Maid Worked in the Still-Room in a large Victorian household, answerable to both the housekeeper and the cook, where she would concoct the kitchen cleaners, soaps, candles and cosmetics for the lady of the house. It also housed the jams pickles etc. that the cook would make
Stockinger Knitter, weaver or seller of stockings
Stock Turner Turned the wooden stocks used in guns
Stoker Tended to and fed coal to boilers in mills and aboard ship
Stoker - Refuse Destructor Fed refuse to an incinerator
Stone Blue Maker Maker of Bristol Blue glassware - See
Stone Dresser Prepared quarried stone for building. This would include cutting it into regular sized blocks with a reasonably even surface
Stone Getter Stone-face quarry worker - See
Stone Picker Removed stones from fields before planting
Stoneman / Stonewarden Highway surveyor
Stover / Stever/ Staver The senior member of a partnership of miners and in charge at the surface
Stowyer Stowed nets on fishing boats
Stravaiger Vagrant
Strawman (16/17c) Hired to give false evidence for the prosecution in Court
Straw Joiner Thatcher (of roofs)
Straw Plaiter Plaited straw for use in hat-making
Streaker Laid out bodies for burial
Street Orderly/Boy Street cleaner
Strickler Skimmed off the scum from molten iron in a mould
Stretcher / Tenter Stretched fabrics after weaving on a frame with hooks - origin of saying "on tenterhooks"
Striker / Stryker 1) Blacksmith's assistant 2) Harpoon man on a whaler
Stripper Cleaned the carding machines in mills
Stringer Made bowstrings
Stroller 1) A vagabond, vagrant; an itinerant beggar or pedlar 2) An itinerant actor; a strolling player
Stuff Gownsman Junior barrister
Stuff Presser Placed the cloth within sheets of special stiff press paper and passed it into a hot-pressing machine which gave the finish to the cloth
Stuff Weaver Wove "stuff" - a coarse cloth, more especially of worsted, made of long or ‘combing wool’ distinguished from other woollen cloths by the absence of any nap or pile
Sucksmith Made Ploughshares
Sugar Baker 1) Sugar Refiner 2) Made confectionery or cake decorations
3) Fancy baker.  More Info.
Sumner Summoner or Apparitor
Sumpter Porter
Supercargo Officer on a chartered merchant ship who is in charge of cargo and the commercial concerns of the ship (on behalf of the charterers) - Still in use
Surfaceman A Roadworker
Sutler Merchant or peddler in an army camp
Swabber Seaman (slang)
Swailer 1) Miller 2) Grain dealer
Swain Herdsman
Swaith Maker A Swaith / Swathe was (usually) a cotton or silk shroud used for burial
Sweep Chimneysweep
Swell Maker Made shallow baskets
Swiller A basket weaver/maker - an old Cumberland name
Swineyard / Swineherd Pig Keeper
Swingler Beat flax to remove the coarse parts
Sword Cutler Made swords
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